The open psych book

Psych book
Cover of 1951 edition of “Psychology–The Fundamentals of Human Adjustment,” by Norman L. Munn, the issue and title of the book that was open on Ronald Tammen’s desk the night he disappeared.

One of the most frequently named items that Ronald Tammen had left behind—apart from his wallet, IDs, and car keys—was the open book on his desk. Remember the book? From what I can tell, it was first brought to the public’s attention on April 25, 1953, when the Hamilton Journal-News reported “books” (plural) being “open on a study table” after he’d disappeared. On May 2, 1953, the books were narrowed down to “a textbook” that “was left open on his desk,” though some reports reverted to the plural form on occasion after that date. In April 1954, we learned from Joe Cella, also of the Hamilton Journal-News, that it was a psychology book, and in 1976, Cella reported that the psychology book was turned to “Habits.” This detail is posthumously corroborated by Carl Knox, dean of men, whose investigative notes say “Psych Book opened to HABITS,” with the last word written in all caps and underscored twice. What’s more, Knox had also noted that Tammen was spotted “Studying Psych” from 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. on the day of his disappearance. How someone might have known the subject matter that Tammen had been studying, we can’t be sure, but that person must have felt reasonably confident of that detail to mention it to investigators.

Carl Knox notes -- HABITS
The HABITS reference, underlined twice, can be seen at the bottom of Carl Knox’s note.
Carl Knox notes -- studying psych
Beneath Tammen’s name is Carl Knox’s notation that Tammen had been “Studying Psych” from 3-4 p.m. that Sunday.

Juxtapose all of the above with what Dick Titus told me Tammen had said to him before Tammen had walked out of Titus’s room the evening of his disappearance: that he needed to study his own subjects. What does all of this tell you? For me, it indicates that one of the last things on Tammen’s mind before he went missing was psychology. In fact, it appears to have been the subject he felt most compelled to study during the afternoon and evening of his final day as a Miami student. The topic of “Habits” is an added bit of intrigue.

Here’s why I find the open psych book so fascinating: Ronald Tammen wasn’t taking a psychology class.

Oh, let me rephrase that. Although Ronald Tammen had been enrolled in psychology the semester that he disappeared, he’d already withdrawn from the course by the time he went missing.

The documents that I’m posting today, which, to the best of my knowledge, have never been posted online before, are Ronald Tammen’s college transcripts. Here they are.

Before we get to the topic of psychology, let’s take a look at Ronald Tammen’s grades. He was a B student—the average of the A’s, B’s, and C’s he had accumulated since he’d arrived at Miami. His much-publicized grade point average of 3.205 was from his freshman year. The A’s were in courses such as Unified Math and General Geology—he was, after all, a math and science guy. The C’s were in American Social and Economic History (first semester) and Freshman Composition (second semester). All things considered, he was doing fairly well academically his first year away from home.

 

transcripts-p1
Page 1 of Ronald Tammen’s transcripts

Now, let’s turn our attention to Ron’s sophomore year. W’s—withdrawals—had begun popping up like wins in the Brooklyn Dodgers’ 1953 baseball standings. Except Ron wasn’t winning. He was struggling. Juggling. At the start of the first semester of his sophomore year, Ron was carrying a course load of 17 credit hours, which is typical for a full-time student. At its completion, however, he was carrying only 11 hours, having dropped two 3-hour courses—an economics course and General Psychology, PSY 261. Despite the much lighter load, his grade point average had now slipped to 3.178, by my calculations.

That’s where the grades end, because at the conclusion of Tammen’s second semester, we see only a string of I’s (incompletes), a P (passing) in gym, and a W in psychology, the same course he’d dropped the previous semester. The P is of no consequence to this story. It only tells us how badly a person would have to be doing in gym to be given a failing grade. You could fall off the planet five weeks before finals and still pass the course. It’s the lone W in the line-up of I’s that was most curious to me. I needed to know the timeframe by which those I’s and W were handed out.

Our first clue is a statement at the bottom of page 3 of Tammen’s student records (made available for the first time here), that says: “DISAPPEARED FROM RESIDENCE HALL APRIL 19, 1953. GIVEN INCOMPLETES FOR SEMESTER (2ND, 1952-53).”

Ron's student records

In my mind, that would imply that when Ron disappeared, he’d already dropped his psychology course and those I’s only pertained to courses in which he was still enrolled. To make sure my reasoning was correct, I contacted the Miami University Registrar’s Office in October 2010, asking how it could be that Ron had received that W in his psychology course.

Miami’s Registrar, David Sauter, is one of the most responsive administrators I’ve encountered anywhere. He’s also interested in the Tammen case. He got right on it. The next day, an assistant contacted me with information from an old grade card. It said that if a course is dropped after seven weeks, “either ‘WP’ for withdrawn passing or ‘WF’ for withdrawn failing must be entered.”

“The old grade card for that course indicates Mr. Tammen had a midterm grade of ‘C’ for the course in Spring 1953 and that he was dropped with a ‘WP.’  It does not, however, provide a drop date,” she said in her email. She added that she and her colleagues in the Registrar’s Office believed that the reason that there is a lone W on the transcript, and not a WP, was because the columns were only one character wide.

That provided me with one endpoint to my timeframe—Ron must have withdrawn at least seven weeks into the semester. But what about the other endpoint? I contacted Miami’s archivist at that time, Bob Schmidt, who emailed me a page from the 1952-53 issue of Rules and Regulations Governing Students, Student Activities, and Student Organizations for Miami University. In addition to confirming the information that the Registrar’s Office had provided, it said that course withdrawals had to be performed through the student’s adviser, and any withdrawals after eleven weeks resulted in a WF.

So, to recap, thus far:

  • Ron Tammen had indeed already dropped his psychology course by the time he’d disappeared.
  • He’d done it between the seventh and eleventh weeks of the second semester.
  • Ron’s adviser, a professor by the name of Belden J. Dennison, knew it; Carl Knox, in his principal role as dean of men, also likely knew it; and now we know it too.

University calendars for 1952-53 show that Tuesday, February 3, was the date when second-semester classes started at Miami. Not quite seven weeks later, Saturday, March 21, 1953, was the last day a student could withdraw from a course without receiving a grade, and Saturday, April 25, 1953, a little over 11 weeks after the semester’s start, was the last day a student could withdraw from a course without receiving a WF. That means that the timeframe in which Ron had withdrawn from the course was likely sometime between Monday, March 23, and Saturday, April 18. Not only was this “drop” period within weeks of Ron’s disappearance, and possibly only a day or two before, it also overlapped with spring break, which had taken place from noon, Saturday, March 28, until Monday, April 6, with classes resuming on Tuesday, April 7. Ron wouldn’t have been able to drop his psych course during the university’s week off, so he either did it right before spring break or right after. My guess is that it would have been after spring break, because that was also the time period in which Ron had appeared to be showing signs of stress. Carl Knox had noted that Ron had been consulting the Bible several times after spring break and had also spoken of “being ‘tired lately’ since vacation.”

Carl Knox notes -- signs of stress
According to Carl Knox’s notes, Ronald Tammen seemed to be showing signs of stress following spring break.

So I think the question on everyone’s minds is: why would Ronald Tammen be reading a textbook for a class he’d already dropped?

It could be that he had a general, non-school-related question he was pondering—something that led him to crack open an authoritative resource, not unlike how we now crack open our laptops to ask Google What’s romanesco? or How old is Kirk Douglas?

But why look up the very vague and arbitrary topic of habits? If Ronald Tammen had a habit he wanted to break, it would make more sense to research that specific topic somewhere, like a library, or to seek guidance from an expert. Besides, what habit would Ronald Tammen even have that needed breaking? Smoking? He didn’t smoke. Drinking? He wasn’t a drinker either. Was he a nail-biter? I doubt it. To be honest, it’s difficult to imagine what habit Ronald Tammen would want to kick with such urgency that he would interrupt his busy Sunday to consult his former textbook for a dry-as-a-bone description of habits. That would be like looking up the word Italy in an encyclopedia in hopes of finding a really good marinara recipe. It makes no sense.

HABITS

Among the boxes devoted to Ronald Tammen at the Miami University Archives are copies of textbook pages, many of which have the following notation typed on them: “Copy of textbooks left open on Ron Tammen’s desk.” The word “textbooks” is plural, but the pages are from one book: Psychology–The Fundamentals of Human Adjustment, by Norman L. Munn. At the top of one of the pages, someone has made the notation that the book was a 2nd edition, from 1951. I found it puzzling that the archived documents covered a range spanning pages 152 to 295. Typically, if a book is open on a desk, there are only two pages facing upward, not a range of 143 pages.

I purchased the 1951 issue of Munn’s textbook online. When it arrived, one of the first things I did was make sure that the nine copied pages from University Archives corresponded with my version, and they did. I felt confident that I was perusing the same textbook edition that Ron had been spotted studying. The second thing I did was check to see if there was a chapter titled “Habits,” and there isn’t one. I then took a deductive leap, and reasoned that whoever observed that Ron’s book was opened to “Habits” must have noticed the word in a section head or subhead. (We’ll discuss why I think this was the right decision a little later.) I examined each of the 143 pages looking for headings with some form of the word habit written there. I also checked the rest of Munn’s book for any other possible mentions of the word in a section head or subhead.

I found four pages in all, which happened to be among the nine archived pages. They were pages 152 (with the section head Levels of Complexity in Habit Formation), 162 (subhead: Habit Interference), 277 (section head: Man is Primarily a Creature of Habit), and 294 (section head: Force of Habit). Finally, it dawned on me. Whoever had made the archived copies was probably doing what I was doing: trying to figure out which two pages Tammen was studying before he disappeared. (That person even went a little farther than I was inclined to go, making copies of a couple additional pages that included the word habits in the regular text.) But how could I narrow down those four pages, plus the pages they were facing, to just two? If only someone had taken a photo of the open book.

As it so happens, someone had. A few days after the first anniversary of Ronald Tammen’s disappearance—April 22, 1954—the Hamilton Journal-News published an article that included photographs of Ron and Chuck’s room after Ron had disappeared. One of the photos was a close-up of the open book he’d left on his desk and a second photo was of the same book from another angle. Although we can’t be 100-percent certain that the pages in the photos are exactly as Ron had left them—a current of air or an accidental bump could have caused one or two pages to flip—nevertheless, it’s all that we have. Moreover, the article was written by Joe Cella, who likely obtained the photos from investigators. If Cella believed the photos to be accurate, who am I to second guess him?

Unfortunately, I’m not able to obtain enlarged versions of the photos. The originals no longer exist. However, you can access the article here and zoom in on the two photos. [Article is provided with the permission of the Hamilton Journal-News and Cox Media Group Ohio.]

From what I can tell, the left-hand page appears to lack any images or graphics. Therefore, at a minimum, I believe we can rule out two of the two-page spreads on the basis that there were fairly prominent photographs on the left-hand pages. They are pages 152, which had a photo of a memory drum in the upper left-hand corner, and 276, which is opposite the habits reference on page 277, and which had four photos down its left column of a mother rat and her babies. In my view, spreads 152–153 and 276–277 are no longer contenders.

The right-hand page is more difficult to discern in the Journal-News photos. It doesn’t appear to have images either, which would eliminate pages 162–163 on the basis that the latter page has a photograph on the upper left side of a student operating a card-sorter.

But there’s another, more compelling reason to remove pages 162–163 from consideration. As I mentioned earlier, Munn’s book contains both section heads and subheads. The section heads are written in all capital letters, while the subheads are written in bold type with only the first word capitalized. As I’ve already mentioned, when Carl Knox wrote the word “HABITS” in his notes, he did so in all capital letters, accentuated by a double underline. I can’t help but believe that he was imitating the style in which the words were written in the book, perhaps without even realizing what he was doing. In my opinion, Carl Knox was looking at a section head, not a subhead, which would eliminate the page spread 162–163.

HABITS 2

That leaves us with two pages that are composed entirely of text: pages 294 and 295. On the left-hand page is the section head “FORCE OF HABIT,” which Dean Knox could have shortened to “HABITS.” On the opposite page is a subject even more intriguing. Within a section titled “UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION” is a discussion on how someone can be influenced to behave in certain ways. The subhead is “Post-hypnotic suggestion.”

I’m not sure why investigators failed to specify the page numbers that the book was turned to or why Carl Knox chose to write “HABITS” in his notes as opposed to the actual section head. As we’ve established, no subhead or section head on any of the pages was simply called “Habits.” It’s also curious that university officials didn’t appear to question why Ron would be studying psychology, since they knew he’d already dropped the course. Did that detail somehow escape them?

Or could it be that investigators had noticed the reference to post-hypnotic suggestion and didn’t want to raise suspicions that Ronald Tammen’s disappearance could have had something to do with that phenomenon? I get it—why get everyone all riled up if it had no relevance to the case? But with Miami’s psychology department employing at least three faculty members who were hypnosis experts—two of them having collaborated with a renowned psychologist on the 1933 seminal book Hypnosis and Suggestibility, and one of those two being Ronald Tammen’s former psych professor—it seems as if that might have been something worth inquiring about.

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Yep, we’re going to go there in subsequent posts, but we’ll be proceeding slowly and cautiously. I don’t intend to point fingers at a person, department, or agency before all of the evidence is in. I also won’t be disparaging a medical practice that has helped countless people overcome personal difficulties. What I will be doing is posting relevant documents as they become available and asking questions that, as far as I know, haven’t been posed before—at least not publicly.

In the meantime, please join me today on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/agmihtf/) at 11:30 a.m. ET as I live-stream additional information concerning today’s post. Among other things, we’ll be leafing through the individual pages of Tammen’s psychology book, looking at the habits references. If you’re tied up at that time, or are discovering this website after April 19, no problem. You can access a recording after-the-fact.

 

24 thoughts on “The open psych book

  1. Oh, my. I one time had a fleeting thought of asking if he was in a Psychology class…….I guess the many generic references to “he was doing well in school” took my mind off the more specific question. I am sort of shaking with nervousness over this. You, madam, are simply The Bomb. I hope you sell 10 million copies of the book.

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  2. A general thought. I took an Intro Psychology class and the professor early on suggested we not be afraid to come to his office if anything we discussed seemed a problem we were dealing with. It was a rather light-hearted conversation. I’m not sure if he was trying to put a positive spin on a serious matter or if that was just his personality. He said that people would read descriptions/symptoms of various afflictions and become convinced they were suffering from it. Hard to believe that was almost 40 years ago, but that always stuck with me.

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  3. Another general thought. Although it is “impossible”, I still had an Incomplete on my Miami records last time I got a copy of my transcript. I’ll say at least 15 years after I graduated. I’ll run up to Oxford sometime soon and see if it’s still there. It’s supposed to officially roll over to an F after some period of time, but in my case, it didn’t. I knew why, I never cared, didn’t need it to graduate, so I just left it. It’s a little conversation starter when I meet up with Miami grads. And I want to be in Guiness for longest surviving Incomplete on a college transcript, so nobody tell on me, okay? Anyway, even though it’s not the same thing, it seems a bit of a cautionary note about not reading too much into how the grading system/recordkeeping works.

    Man, I love this site and how it brings back the memories.

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    1. Hi – some insight from the now retired University Registrar Dave Sauter as I read this fascinating information. Regarding grades and grade changes as well as transcripts – access the OneStop website https://miamioh.edu/onestop/index.html and on the main page you can see how to order a transcript, a great starting point to know date ranges and grades. As for grades and grade changes, academic policy changes result in the need to couple the exact date of the grade with the exact policy – and University Registrar staff have some of that re: this case; they can shed light on your/others’ particular questions as well. In a rare case, there’s been a prior mistake covered so always good to review and pursue. “Detective work” for current/former students is something the staff enjoy – a break from the routine!

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  4. Oh, I see. He withdrew from the Economics class first semester, apparently while he was grading out as an A. Is that correct? And he withdrew from the same Psych class two semesters in a row……..that’s not a good sign.

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  5. Not meaning to spam you, but I keep seeing stuff. When he withdrew to 11 hours, unless things were different back then and I bet they weren’t, he was no longer a full time student! I happen to know from, uhhhhhh, a cough cough friend with an unfortunate academic career what a problem that can be. Grants, loans, ability to live on campus, there were some issues for my “friend” falling below full time status.

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  6. So he falls below full time student status first semester, then turns around and takes 2 of the very same classes he withdrew from in the second semester! And Ron was an RA….falling below full time status couldn’t have been good there. Okay, I’ll try to stop posting. :p

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  7. So many questions running through my head. Was there any human error involved with entries on Ron’s transcripts? Maybe some misguidance in the way the book notations were written? And, if both of the aforementioned aren’t inaccurate in any way, maybe Ron just had a profound interest in the subject of Psychology (would explain enrolling twice in the course) and was reading on his own. Although, there is still the question about the potential hypnosis. Was Ron being used as a guinea pig by one of the university’s professors? You’re killing me Jen!

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  8. Maybe he was recruited into being a part of a “secret government program”. He could have been recruited, given a new identity, thus never being able to resume his old life in any way.

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  9. So, I take a day off work to be there at 11:30 and I had to miss it! Unbelievable confluence of events. I’m glad you have the video link. I just watched it twice. I couldn’t wait to read the 9:00 blog post so I am glad I didn’t have to sneak off at work to do so.

    Random thoughts:

    There was an expectation in my intro Psych class that all students would participate in experiments. The experiment I ended up in was really mundane, as were most I heard about from friends, although a few people told stories of sort of interesting/exciting projects. As a shot in the ark, it’d be wonderful to find someone who was in the same class who could confirm a Hypnosis experiment. Or to narrow it down, you might be able to track down a grad student in Psychology in that year who conducted the experiments.

    I’m going to buy that Psychology book and have a look at the pertinent pages.

    There is something very, VERY disturbing about the fact he dropped the Psych class and then took it again. I guess the fact he took the Econ class again says maybe it was just one of those things a college kid would do, but to keep reading a textbook after you’ve dropped a class twice? Painful.

    I think my working hypothesis before AGMIHTF had always been the frat prank gone bad. You mentioned the fraternity as one scenario that can be eliminated entirely.

    I’m not sure what I think about Belden Dennison and Carl Knox per not following up on the dropped class matter. I know in my freshman dorm, I spent about 5 minutes total with the SA the whole school year. I’m not sure how much I’d expect anyone to keep in their mind about any one student. I do know if it’d been me, I’d have been digging into the matter pretty hard, although I’m not sure I fault Dennison and Knox much for not doing so.

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  10. I’m sure you’ve covered this already but could you refresh my memory as to whether his roommate was the first to notice he was missing?

    I seem to recall that but at the same time I seem to recall that he was out of town at the time.

    I’m asking because I wondered if there’s any possibility that his roommate was taking psychology and had left the book there instead of Ron? Could they have assumed it was Ron’s simply because the roommate was away?

    Love reading this site, and anxiously await new posts! Thank you!

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    1. I’ll answer the first part now and the second part in the upcoming Q&A blog post. So, yeah, Chuck came home late Sunday and he was the first to notice that Ron was gone. However, he thought Ron was at the fraternity, so he didn’t think much about it. He didn’t grow concerned until the next day, after he talked to people from the fraternity, who said he hadn’t been there.

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  11. I am going to ramble here, purposely, as it will be sympomatic of how I’m thinking about the matter I’m about to discuss. I was reading a Ludlum book today, not a care in the world, not a thought of Ron Tammen, and something hit me. The Psych book was open to what might be a sort of incriminating page. The very topic on the right side page certainly conjures up thoughts of some Psychology experiment with a bad outcome or what have you. He was studying that book by at least one account, for a full hour on a day that his band had spent hours in Cincinnati. While he was struggling academically. And it was open to what might be the most incriminating page in the book (I will check that out as I took a couple minutes and $8 and ordered a copy from an online site).

    In any event, it brought back thoughts of Sherlock Holmes. He would sometimes berate the local police for lacking imagination. In one particular case, a young man discovered he was an heir to a man who was a former (rejected)beau of his mother. A day or two later, there appeared to be a murder of that man. The local police appealed to the obvious motive of wanting his inheritance. Holmes was particularly disgusted with the police for lacking the imagination to consider the matter from the young man’s point of view. Why would he kill a man for money when he simply had to wait a while to get it, etc etc etc. Why would such an obvious suspect commit such an obvious crime?

    I guess the Ludlum book had me thinking literary thoughts or whatever, but I as thought about this case, I put on my Holmes hat, and began to wonder about Ron’s point of view. How is it, that after an hour, the book was opened to what was almost surely THE most “incriminating” page in the book? Hundreds and hundreds of pages, and there it was. Open, not closed. To those people still reading that I haven’t bored to death, I ask you, how often have you left a book face up and open? The Psych book was face up, and open. To that page. Does that mean anything? Would Sherlock Holmes think it was too obvious? Or was it just a random thing that appears significant? Was he just reading that section over and over and over? Or…..and this is where my imagination went wild and I had to control it…was it a little bit of a hint, conscious or not, that he was leaving behind for someone to find? Enough for now, even in writing this I’m having new thoughts. I sure look forward to the future updates.

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  12. Another thought . . . Maybe he had been hypnotized at some point whether part of a “study” or otherwise. Maybe he believed that it was affecting him mentally in some manner such as concentration, lack of ability to do school work like normal, fatigued, etc.

    Perhaps he was reading the section to see if he could determine if the hypnosis can affect a person in the way he believed he was being affected. Or maybe he considered being hypnotized if he hadn’t already been to see if it would help with stress.

    I still firmly believe that the trip to the coroner to have his blood typed is a clue. Perhaps an unwanted pregnancy, something to do with the military, I don’t know but something is up with the test. He was stressed enough to have this done and by someone that doesn’t normally do these tests and therefore the records and proof of such would not be in normal records that could be checked.

    I think he walked away. For whatever reason, whether military service(secret obliviously), stress overload, mental breakdown, fear, he picked up and left. My personal belief is he was used in secret military service. I think he lived for a while and even many years but could not ever contact anyone from his former life. Or the secret military hypnosis experiment went wrong and the military scooped him up to live out his days in a mental institution under another name.

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  13. Been thinking about the site. What if there was a specific discussion page, front and center on the home page, where people could discuss whatever was on their mind, instead of trying to find an appropriate kibitzing forum that was last used months ago? I’ve gone back to a lot of spots with ideas that came to mind now, but were responses to posts you made 7 months ago. I’ve noticed a few times other people responded to the last blog post about a matter that really would be better suited in a previous blog or Backgrounder entry. A discussion forum could alleviate that. You could copy the message over to the more appropriate forum, if it exists, (if not, just let it sit in the general discussion forum) and let people know you’d done so. Might drive up page views and encourage people to share thoughts on subjects that were posted long ago.

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  14. Just thinking…12 hours of classes when he disappeared. 2 hours on Saturday, probably. Monday-Friday, 10 hours of classes doesn’t sound very busy to me. Where was he, what was he doing? Just pondering, no guesses even.

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  15. Got my copy of the Psych book today. It’s a little unnerving to look at. One thought came to mind. Is there any chance Miami saved the class syllabus? It might be revealing to see when pg. 294 was assigned reading.

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    1. I doubt they’d have it, based on other items I’ve tried to obtain from them, but there’s no harm in asking. I’ll add it to the list!

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  16. Read a few pages of the Psych book, starting at page 294. Very interesting, and disturbing. It took me about 3 minutes to find a copy online, and it only cost me $8 to get the book mailed. Anyone who is a fan of the case and this site really needs to get a copy. Yes, Jen is the bomb and doing a lot of great work, but there is some real satisfaction in searching out some of this stuff on your own.

    I am going to share some of the underlined parts of the book. The underlines were made by a previous reader/student, from pages 294-295. They are:

    “Force of habit, on the other hand, is persistsence of a particular way of satisfying a given motive.”

    “…habit forces us “into a rut”.”

    “The fact that individuals are not always aware of the motives which underlie their acts is well recognized. Phobias, or abnormal fears of particular objects or situations, often exemplify unconscious motivation.”

    “Post-hypnotic suggestion provides another good example of unconscious motivation.”

    Then follows a case study of a student (in a classroom setting!) being hypnotized and reluctantly, but diligently, following the instructions given while under hypnosis. I think this is getting close.

    My next job, and if anyone is following along, just for kicks, I hope you’ll join me, is to figure out what an hour’s reading of the book before page 294 would indicate as a starting point. Just to get a sense of (maybe) where Ron started reading, and tie that together with the shocking endpoint. It is possible, and I sort of think probable, he was not reading through the book that long, but reading the section on post-hypnotic suggestion over and over and over that day. Still, I’ll give an hour to this just to see if something interesting comes up.

    And one other thought has popped in my mind. I know it was a long time ago, but did Ron specifically say I “need” to get back to my studies? That has some serious and possibly sinister connotations, doesn’t it?

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  17. General thoughts…Belden Dennison KNEW Ron dropped below full time status the first semester? That has my full attention…I believe anyone would “cover” for a student wanting to drop a class after the official deadline and save them getting an F in the class…off topic, but can anyone explain the difference between an F and a WF? I say you can’t. Prove me wrong.

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